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Does WIC Participation Improve Breast-Feeding Practices?


Schwartz, J. Brad; Popkin, Barry M.; Tognetti, Janet; & Zohoori, Namvar (1995). Does WIC Participation Improve Breast-Feeding Practices?. American Journal of Public Health, 85(5), 729-731. PMCID: PMC1615406


The effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on breast-feeding behavior have been sometimes found inadequate. The determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration among WIC participants and nonparticipants were modeled by using retrospective cross-sectional data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. This study corrects for self-selection bias as far as the data allow, in addition to controlling for parents' ages, education, race, and family income. Findings suggest that prenatal WIC participation, combined with breast-feeding advice, significantly increases the initiation of breast-feeding but does not affect duration. The exact nature of effective breast-feeding advice given prenatally at WIC clinics is unclear and warrants further research.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

American Journal of Public Health


Schwartz, J. Brad
Popkin, Barry M.
Tognetti, Janet
Zohoori, Namvar