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Kaufman, Jay S. & Cooper, Richard S. (2007). Re: The Association of Race with Frailty: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 17(2), 157-158.


Hirsch et al. (1) sought to study a latent outcome called “frailty,” which was estimated from measured variables intended to represent grip strength, exhaustion, weight loss, slowness, and low levels of physical activity. They then considered racial category (white or African American) as a predictor of estimated frailty, along with covariates representing personal characteristics, socioeconomic status, cognitive impairment, prevalent disease, subclinical cardiovascular disease markers, and inflammation markers. The investigators were interested in whether race was associated independently with frailty after conditioning on these measured covariates.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Annals of Epidemiology


Kaufman, Jay S.
Cooper, Richard S.