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Hagan, Jacqueline Maria & Phillips, Scott (2008). Border Blunders: The Unanticipated Human and Economic Costs of the U.S. Approach to Immigration Control, 1986-2007. Criminology and Public Policy, 7(1), 83-94.


The article examines enforcement activities in the U.S. and draws attention to consequences of immigration policies that target migrants as criminals but ignore the hiring practices of employers who play a role in the recruitment of migrant labor. Migrants continued to pay the costs of the expansion of enforcement activities along the southwest border. Although evidence revealed that border and workplace enforcement operations had failed to deter unauthorized migration, the country continued to rely on an enforcement approach that was hard on migrants. The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act increased the enforcement arm of the immigration authority by eliminating judicial review for immigrants eligible for deportation.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Criminology and Public Policy


Hagan, Jacqueline Maria
Phillips, Scott