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Ghuman, Sharon; Behrman, Jere R.; Gultiano, Socorro; Armecin, Graeme; Bas, Isabelita N.; Duazo, Paulita L.; King, Elizabeth M.; & Lee, Nanette R. (2006). Early Childhood Development: A Review of Findings from a Longitudinal Study in the Philippines. East Asian Economic Perspectives, 17(2), 1-24.


In this paper, we provide background and an overview of findings related to three studies on early childhood development (ECD), family background, and ECD-related programs. These studies use data from a longitudinal study of 7,922 children age 0-4 years at baseline in three regions of the Philippines that has the overall aim of evaluating an important government ECD programs. The first study shows that family background (household physical assets, parental height and schooling) has a number of important positive associations with seven dimensions of ECD, but that these estimated associations are often highly sensitive to the inclusion of controls for health and ECD-related services and community characteristics. Our second study shows that the Philippine ECD program has led to significant improvements in cognitive, social, motor and language development and short-term nutritional status of children in ECD program areas, particularly for younger children. Finally, our third study suggests that children’s hemoglobin counts have important positive effects on their enrollment in primary school, and that there are important positive interactions between parental schooling and school access and quality in their effect on schooling enrollment.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

East Asian Economic Perspectives


Ghuman, Sharon
Behrman, Jere R.
Gultiano, Socorro
Armecin, Graeme
Bas, Isabelita N.
Duazo, Paulita L.
King, Elizabeth M.
Lee, Nanette R.