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Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; & Koch, Gary G. (1994). Variability in Cigarette Smoking within and between Adolescent Friendship Cliques. Addictive Behaviors, 19(3), 295-305.


Research has consistency shown that adolescent smoking is related to friends' smoking, yet smoking in the context of adolescent peer groups (friendship cliques) has been little studied. Formal network analysis was used to identify 87 adolescent friendship cliques in a sample of 1,092 ninth graders at five schools. There was intraclique homogeneity and interlicque heterogeneity in current cigarette smoking, conforming that smokers tend to be in cliques with smokers and nonsmokers tend to be with nonsmokers. Most cliques were comprised entirely or mostly of nonsmokers, suggesting that friendship cliques may contribute mopre to the maintenace of smoking than to the onset and maintenace of smoking. Prevention and research implications are discussed.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Addictive Behaviors


Ennett, Susan T.
Bauman, Karl E.
Koch, Gary G.