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Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Rodríguez, Nestor; & Castro, Brianna (2011). Social Effects of Mass Deportations by the United States Government, 2000-10. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(8), 1374-1391.


Interviews with deportees in El Salvador and Mexico and with immigrants in the United States indicate that expanded US enforcement policies are straining transnational families and imposing fear on immigrant communities. Expanded enforcement is removing long-term settlers with strong kinship ties to the United States. Through various strategies, some immigrants attempt to cope with new enforcement operations, while others involuntarily return to their home communities. The findings suggest that (1) conceptualizations of immigration policy enactment of the ‘liberal state’ need to be reassessed, and (2) migration policies of the United States, Mexico and El Salvador need to be revisited in light of their human costs.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Ethnic and Racial Studies


Hagan, Jacqueline Maria
Rodríguez, Nestor
Castro, Brianna