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Bumpass, Larry L.; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Choe, Minja Kim; & Tsuya, Noriko O. (2009). The Institutional Context of Low Fertility: The Case of Japan. Asian Population Studies, 5(3), 215-235.


Japan's very low fertility is set in the context of the 'marriage package' faced by never-married young people. The competition between the unmarried lifestyle and the traditional package of marital roles has led to delays in marriage and childbearing. The marriage package is discussed in terms of levels of and preferences for wife's education and employment, the division of household labor, the changing nature of marriage, and the rising risk of divorce. The extended portion of adult life spent unmarried and childless is also creating feedback loops at both the individual and societal level by providing new opportunities for innovative behaviors such as cohabitation.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Asian Population Studies


Bumpass, Larry L.
Rindfuss, Ronald R.
Choe, Minja Kim
Tsuya, Noriko O.