King, Valarie (1994). Variation in the Consequences of Nonresident Father Involvement for Children's Well-Being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56(4)
Using data from subsets ranging in size from 777 to 1,501 children from the child supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a series of multivariate regression models were tested to determine whether the effects of nonresident father involvement on child well-being vary by race, mother's education, or whether the child was born within or outside of marriage. The results show few interactive effects, and no identifiable set of conditions emerged that increased or reduced the importance of father involvement for child well-being.
Journal of Marriage and the Family