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Effects of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Infant Anthropometric Outcomes


Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Adair, Linda S.; & Herring, Amy H. (2011). Effects of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Infant Anthropometric Outcomes. Journal of Pediatrics, 158(2), 221-226. PMCID: PMC3017634


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influence infant postnatal growth.
STUDY DESIGN: Participants were from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Term infants with weight or length measurements at approximately 6 months were included (n = 363). Multivariable regression estimated associations for weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and rapid infant weight gain with categorical maternal exposures defined with the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations.
RESULTS: Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with higher WAZ (linear regression coefficient [?], 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.61) and WLZ (?, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.02-0.76), respectively. Pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with LAZ. Excessive GWG was associated with higher WAZ (?, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15-0.62) and LAZ (?, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.56). Excessive GWG ?200% of recommended amount was associated with higher WAZ (?, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.28-1.07), LAZ (?, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.06-0.83), and WLZ (?, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.04-0.82). Risk of rapid weight gain increased across maternal exposure categories; however, none of the estimates were significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG are modifiable intrauterine exposures that influence infant postnatal anthropometric outcomes. Further investigation with infant body composition measurements is warranted.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Pediatrics


Deierlein, Andrea L.
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria
Adair, Linda S.
Herring, Amy H.