CitationDuffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R., Jr.; & Popkin, Barry M. (2010). Drinking Caloric Beverages Increases the Risk of Adverse Cardiometabolic Outcomes in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(4), 954-959. PMCID: PMC2937591
AbstractBACKGROUND: Intake of caloric beverages is hypothesized to contribute to adverse health outcomes, but the beverages and populations studied vary considerably.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the relation between consumption of low- and whole-fat milk, fruit juice, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and cardiometabolic risk factors.
DESIGN: We used data from a prospective 20-y cohort of 2774 adults. Data are taken from CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study examination years 0 (1985-1986), 7 (1992-1993), and 20 (2005-2006). Beverage intake was averaged across years 0 and 7, and continuous and categorical (quartile) distributions were used. Incident (year 20) high waist circumference (WC), high triglycerides, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome were examined by using multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models.
RESULTS: Higher SSB consumption (across quartiles) was associated with higher risk of high WC [adjusted relative risk (aRR): 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P for trend lt 0.001]; high LDL cholesterol (aRR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35; P for trend = 0.018), high triglycerides (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13; P for trend = 0.033), and hypertension (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12; P for trend = 0.023). Whole-fat milk consumption was associated with lower risk of high triglycerides (aRR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.00; P for trend = 0.046). With the use of continuous beverage intake, results were similar. Consumers of whole-fat milk and SSBs were more likely to be younger, black, and male and to have lower levels of physical activity and higher total energy intake in comparison with nonconsumers (P lt 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that higher SSB consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Recommendations to limit consumption of these caloric beverages may help reduce the burden of these risk factors in US adult populations.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Author(s)Duffey, Kiyah J.
Steffen, Lyn M.
Jacobs, David R., Jr.
Popkin, Barry M.