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Mills, Melinda; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; McDonald, Peter; & te Velde, Egbert, on behalf of the ESHRE Reproduction and Society Task Force (2011). Why Do People Postpone Parenthood? Reasons and Social Policy Incentives. Human Reproduction Update, 17(6), 848-860. PMCID: PMC3529638


BACKGROUND Never before have parents in most Western societies had their first children as late as in recent decades. What are the central reasons for postponement? What is known about the link between the delay of childbearing and social policy incentives to counter these trends? This review engages in a systematic analysis of existing evidence to extract the maximum amount of knowledge about the reasons for birth postponement and the effectiveness of social policy incentives.
METHODS The review followed the PRISMA procedure, with literature searches conducted in relevant demographic, social science and medical science databases (SocINDEX, Econlit, PopLine, Medline) and located via other sources. The search focused on subjects related to childbearing behaviour, postponement and family policies. National, international and individual-level data sources were also used to present summary statistics.
RESULTS There is clear empirical evidence of the postponement of the first child. Central reasons are the rise of effective contraception, increases in women's education and labour market participation, value changes, gender equity, partnership changes, housing conditions, economic uncertainty and the absence of supportive family policies. Evidence shows that some social policies can be effective in countering postponement.
CONCLUSIONS The postponement of first births has implications on the ability of women to conceive and parents to produce additional offspring. Massive postponement is attributed to the clash between the optimal biological period for women to have children with obtaining additional education and building a career. A growing body of literature shows that female employment and childrearing can be combined when the reduction in work-family conflict is facilitated by policy intervention.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Human Reproduction Update


Mills, Melinda
Rindfuss, Ronald R.
McDonald, Peter
te Velde, Egbert, on behalf of the ESHRE Reproduction and Society Task Force