Skip to main content


Ellison, Christopher G.; Bradshaw, Matt; Kuyel, Nilay; & Marcum, Jack P. (2012). Attachment to God, Stressful Life Events, and Changes in Psychological Distress. Review of Religious Research, 53(4), 493-511.


Considerable research shows that social relationships, attachments, and support systems promote emotional well-being. The present study adds to this literature by examining the connection between attachments to God and psychological distress. Analyzing longitudinal data (two waves) from a study of Presbyterian (PCUSA) elders and rank-and-file laypersons, results show that: (1) a secure attachment to God at baseline is associated with a decrease in distress over time; (2) a secure attachment to God buffers against the deleterious effects of stressful life events on distress; and (3) an anxious attachment to God exacerbates the harmful effects of stress. In these analyses, a secure attachment to God is a more robust predictor of changes in distress than many, more commonly studied variables including race, gender, SES, and church attendance. Future research should therefore replicate and extend this line of promising scholarship by examining additional outcomes such as psychiatric illness, physical health, and even mortality risk.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Review of Religious Research


Ellison, Christopher G.
Bradshaw, Matt
Kuyel, Nilay
Marcum, Jack P.