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Cooper, Glinda S.; Baird, Donna D.; Hulka, Barbara S.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Savitz, David A.; & Hughes, Claude L., Jr. (1995). Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Relation to Active and Passive Smoking. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 85(3), 407-411.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between various forms of tobacco exposure and ovarian status, as measured by FSH concentrations, in women 38-49 years old.
METHODS: Two hundred ninety women between 38-49 years old, who had not had hysterectomy or oophorectomy, completed a self-administered questionnaire that included information on tobacco exposure and had serum FSH levels measured on days 2-4 of the menstrual cycle. Linear regression was used to assess the relation between FSH and tobacco exposure.
RESULTS: Controlling for age and other factors, FSH concentrations were 66% higher among current smokers (geometric mean FSH 14.0 mIU/mL) and 39% higher among nonsmokers with passive smoke exposure (11.7 mIU/mL), compared to nonsmoking women without passive smoke exposure (8.4 mIU/mL). The estimated increase in FSH for each year of age was greater for current smokers than for nonsmokers (16 versus 6%, respectively). Ex-smokers did not have higher FSH concentrations, and there was no association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and FSH.
CONCLUSION: Both active and passive smoking are associated with elevated FSH concentrations in women 38-49 years old. The effect, limited to women with current exposure, is consistent with a shorter duration of the menopausal transition period.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Obstetrics & Gynecology


Cooper, Glinda S.
Baird, Donna D.
Hulka, Barbara S.
Weinberg, Clarice R.
Savitz, David A.
Hughes, Claude L., Jr.