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Population-Environment Drivers of H5N1 Avian Influenza Molecular Change in Vietnam


Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael E.; Nguyen, Tung; Todd Jobe, R.; & Wan, Xiu-Feng (2012). Population-Environment Drivers of H5N1 Avian Influenza Molecular Change in Vietnam. Health & Place, 18(5), 1122-1131. PMCID: PMC3904498


This study identifies population and environment drivers of genetic change in H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Vietnam using a landscape genetics approach. While prior work has examined how combinations of local-level environmental variables influence H5N1 occurrence, this research expands the analysis to the complex genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses. A dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007 is used to explore which population and environment variables are correlated with increased genetic change among viruses. Results from non-parametric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses indicate that variables relating to both the environmental and social ecology of humans and birds in Vietnam interact to affect the genetic character of viruses. These findings suggest that it is a combination of suitable environments for species mixing, the presence of high numbers of potential hosts, and in particular the temporal characteristics of viral occurrence, that drive genetic change among H5N1 AIV in Vietnam.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Health & Place


Carrel, Margaret A.
Emch, Michael E.
Nguyen, Tung
Todd Jobe, R.
Wan, Xiu-Feng