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Ennett, Susan T. & Bauman, Karl E. (1996). Adolescent Social Networks: School, Demographic, and Longitudinal Considerations. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11(2), 194-215.


Peer relationships are considered to be a dominant feature of adolescence, but systematically formed social networks rarely have been studied. A social network analysis was used to describe adolescent friendship patterns and to compare them across schools and time. Ninth graders (n = 1030) atfive high schools identified their friends at Wave 1 and again one year later. The resulting sets offriendship links were subjected to social network analysis. The patterns of linkages identified adolescents as clique members, liaisons, and isolates. Clique membership was the modal social position pattern, but liaisons and isolates also were well represented. The proportions of adolescents representing each socialposition varied across schools. In all samples, cliques were homogeneous in gender, race, and mother's educational level, and cliques were largely stable over a one-year time period. The possibility that social network characteristics could explain a variety of adolescent differences is discussed


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Adolescent Research


Ennett, Susan T.
Bauman, Karl E.