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Macronutrient Consumption and Inadequate Micronutrient Intake in Adults


Araujo, Marina Campos; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Barbosa, Flavia dos Santos; Junger, Washington Leite; Yokoo, Edna M.; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; & Sichieri, Rosely (2013). Macronutrient Consumption and Inadequate Micronutrient Intake in Adults. Revista de Saude Publica, 47(Suppl. 1), S177S-89.


OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake among Brazilian adults.
METHODS: Data from the National Dietary Survey, from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, were used. Food consumption was evaluated through food record on two non-consecutive days. A total of 21,003 individuals (52.5% women), between 20-59 years old, participated in the survey. Usual nutrient intake was estimated according to the National Cancer Institute method. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-off points were used to determine the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake. For manganese and potassium, the Adequate Intake (AI) was used as cut-off. Sodium intake was compared with the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The probability approach was used to determine the prevalence of inadequate iron intake. The data were analyzed according to the location of the household (urban or rural) and macro regions of Brazil.
RESULTS: The mean energy intake was 2,083 kcal among men and 1,698 kcal among women. Prevalence of inadequacy equal to or greater than 70% were observed for calcium among men and magnesium, vitamin A, and sodium among both men and women. Prevalence equal to or greater than 90% were found for calcium in women and vitamins D and E in both genders. Prevalence lower than 5% were found for iron in men and for niacin in men and women. In general, prevalence of inadequate intake was higher in the rural area and in the Northeast region.
CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake was higher among individuals who live in urban areas and in the North region. The greatest risk groups of inadequate micronutrient intake were women and those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Revista de Saude Publica


Araujo, Marina Campos
Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira
Barbosa, Flavia dos Santos
Junger, Washington Leite
Yokoo, Edna M.
Pereira, Rosangela Alves
Sichieri, Rosely