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de Moura Souza, Amanda; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Peterson, Karen Eileen; & Sichieri, Rosely (2013). Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Brazil in 2008-2009. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(10), 1359-1365.


Information on the main dietary sources of sodium is essential for developing public health strategies to reduce sodium intake. This study aimed to describe sodium intake according to sex, age, and income and identify the main dietary sources of sodium in Brazil. In total, 34,003 subjects aged 10 years and older participated in the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-2009. Food was classified according to the sodium profile into 31 groups based on a 1-day food record. The daily per capita intake of sodium (mg/day) and sodium density (mg/100 g) were estimated for each food group and stratified by sex, age, and per capita income quartile. The average daily intake of sodium was 3,190 mg/day. The sodium density of the diet increased with age and income (P<0.05). Food groups with the highest densities for both sexes and across all income quartiles included salty preserved meats (997 mg/100 g), processed meats (974 mg/100 g), cheeses (883 mg/100 g), crackers (832 mg/100 g), sandwiches (800 mg/100 g), pizza (729 mg/100 g), and breads (646 mg/100 g), as well as oils, spreads, sauces, and condiments (804 mg/100 g). Altogether, these food groups contributed to 811 mg/day of sodium, which is more than half of the recommended daily sodium intake. Mean sodium intake in Brazil exceeded the tolerable upper intake level of 2,300 mg/day. Processed food contributed to half of the recommended intake and should be targeted by future public health policies aiming at reducing total sodium intake.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics


de Moura Souza, Amanda
Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira
Pereira, Rosangela Alves
Peterson, Karen Eileen
Sichieri, Rosely