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Casas, Maribel; Valvi, Damaskini; Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gomez, Ana; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernandez, Marieta F.; Koch, Holger M.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Sunyer, Jordi; & Rubio, Soledad, et al. (2013). Dietary and Sociodemographic Determinants of Bisphenol A Urine Concentrations in Pregnant Women and Children. Environment International, 56, 10-18.


Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n = 130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4 years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r = 0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio = 1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio = 1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Environment International


Casas, Maribel
Valvi, Damaskini
Luque, Noelia
Ballesteros-Gomez, Ana
Carsin, Anne-Elie
Fernandez, Marieta F.
Koch, Holger M.
Mendez, Michelle A.
Sunyer, Jordi
Rubio, Soledad
Vrijheid, Martine