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Lacey, Linda & Carba, Delia B. (1996). The Role of Grassroots Organizations in Promoting Population Programmes: The Case of Cebu, Philippines. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 11(3), 43-60.


This article reports on findings from a comparison of volunteer religious, development, and other grassroots organizations that provided health and family planning in the Philippines. Selected characteristics of organizations were examined: rationale for offering family planning and/or information; length of program experience; availability of services and supplies; volume of services and supplies; and intentions to expand family planning services. The reasons for initiating family planning varied among the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Development NGOs were motivated by goals of poverty alleviation and quality of life improvement among the poor. Religious NGOs were concerned about the poor, the health of women and children, and promotion of responsible parenthood. Some religious NGOs wanted to offer contraceptive alternatives and prevent artificial means of contraception. Traditional health and family planning NGOs aimed to control population growth and to improve the health of families. Some NGOs aimed to implement the government's population policy. Health and family planning NGOs served the entire community. Development and religious groups served poor communities. Health and family planning NGOs had the longest periods of operation. Religious and development NGOs introduced services during 1976-89. About 25% of grassroots organizations added family planning later than other services. 9 out of 12 development NGOs provided services through outreach programs; all of them offered population information and promotion of family life counseling; 10 offered natural family planning (NFP). All religious NGOs offered population information and counseling; 10 out of 13 offered NFP; about 50% had clinics and community-based distribution. Health and family planning NGOs offered the widest mix of methods. Availability of services varied widely among NGOs.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Asia-Pacific Population Journal


Lacey, Linda
Carba, Delia B.