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Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Mendez, Michelle A.; Du, Shufa; Crandell, Jamie L.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; & Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J. (2015). Diabetes Nutrition Therapy and Dietary Intake among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes in China. Diabetic Medicine, 32(3), 399-406. PMCID: PMC4329062


Aims: To describe the contribution of diabetes nutrition therapy to disease self-management among individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China and to estimate the association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake.
Methods: The 3C Study was an epidemiological study of the coverage, cost and care of Type 1 diabetes in China. The data reported in the present study are from the 3C Nutrition Ancillary Study, a follow-up study conducted a mean ± sd of 1.6 ± 0.2 years later. Diabetes nutrition therapy was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-h recalls. The association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake was estimated using ancova.
Results: Participants (n = 100; 54% male) had a mean ± sd age of 41.7 ± 16.3 years and a mean ± sd diabetes duration of 11.8 ± 9.7 years. Fewer than half of the participants reported that they had ‘ever’ met with a dietitian. While 64% of participants were taught carbohydrate counting, only 12% ‘ever’ use this tool. Participants on insulin pumps and those testing ≥ 1 time/day reported greater dietary flexibility and higher fruit intakes compared with participants on other insulin regimens and testing less frequently. After adjustment for confounding by age and occupation, there were no consistent differences in dietary intake across subgroups of diabetes nutrition therapy.
Conclusions: In this sample of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China there is little dietitian involvement or carbohydrate counting. Increased frequency of nutrition education in conjunction with intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose is needed to improve care.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Diabetic Medicine


Jaacks, Lindsay M.
Liu, Wei
Ji, Linong
Mendez, Michelle A.
Du, Shufa
Crandell, Jamie L.
Rosamond, Wayne D.
Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.