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Gonzalez-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sanchez-Ramirez, Blanca; Ishida, Maria C.; Barrera-Hernandez, Angel; Gutierrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Zacarias, Olga L.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobna, Zuzana; & Mendez, Michelle A., et al. (2015). A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(5), 4587-4601. PMCID: PMC4454927


Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F- in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F- concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F-/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F- (U-F-) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F-/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F- concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F- concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F-, raising questions about possible contribution of F- exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F- exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health


Gonzalez-Horta, Carmen
Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes
Sanchez-Ramirez, Blanca
Ishida, Maria C.
Barrera-Hernandez, Angel
Gutierrez-Torres, Daniela S.
Zacarias, Olga L.
Saunders, R. Jesse
Drobna, Zuzana
Mendez, Michelle A.
Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.
Loomis, Dana P.
Styblo, Miroslav
Del Razo, Luz M.