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Impact Evaluation of the Urban Health Initiative in Urban Uttar Pradesh, India


Achyut, Pranita; Benson, Aimee M.; Calhoun, Lisa M.; Corroon, Meghan; Guilkey, David K.; Kebede, Essete; Lance, Peter M.; Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; & O'Hara, Rick, et al. (2016). Impact Evaluation of the Urban Health Initiative in Urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Contraception, 93(6), 519-525. PMCID: PMC4863519


OBJECTIVES: The Urban Health Initiative (UHI) was initiated in 2009 with the goal of increasing family planning (FP) use among the poor in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project (MLE) was tasked with rigorous impact evaluation of the UHI. This paper presents the impact evaluation findings of the UHI program.
STUDY DESIGN: The MLE design includes a longitudinal sample of women and health facilities with baseline (2010) and endline (2014) data collection in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. At baseline, samples representative of women in each city were selected with oversampling of the poor. Eighty-four percent of women interviewed at baseline were re- interviewed four years later at endline. The longitudinal data supports a within/fixed effects approach to identification of program impact on changes in modern FP use.
RESULTS: Impact evaluation results show significant effects of exposure to both demand and supply side program activities. In particular, women exposed to brochures (marginal effect: 6.96, p<.001), billboards/posters/wall hangings (marginal effect: 2.09, p<.05), and FP on the television (marginal effect: 2.46, p<.001) were significantly more likely to be using a modern method at endline. In addition, we found borderline significance for being exposed to a community health worker (marginal effect: 1.66, p<.10) and living close to an improved public and private supply environment where UHI undertook activities (marginal effects and p-values: 2.48, p<.05 and 1.56, p<.10, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: UHI program activities were designed to complement the Government of India's strategies aimed at ensuring access to and provision of FP to urban poor populations. The effective demand- and supply-side strategies of the UHI program are therefore likely to be sustainable and scalable to other urban areas in India.
IMPLICATIONS STATEMENT: Findings from this study are important for designing sustainable and scalable family planning strategies for urban India where increases in family planning use will be relevant for meeting international family planning targets.


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Achyut, Pranita
Benson, Aimee M.
Calhoun, Lisa M.
Corroon, Meghan
Guilkey, David K.
Kebede, Essete
Lance, Peter M.
Mishra, Anurag
Nanda, Priya
O'Hara, Rick
Sengupta, Ranajit
Speizer, Ilene S.
Stewart, John F.
Winston, Jennifer Jane