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Drigotas, Stephen M. & Udry, J. Richard (1993). Biosocial Models of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Extension to Panel Design. Social Biology, 40(1-2), 1-7.


We extended the biosocial model of problem behavior tested by Udry (1990) to a panel design, following a sample of over one hundred boys in adolescence for three years. We found the expected results for sociological variables, but weaker effects for testosterone than Udry found on cross-sectional data. Using panel models with lagged hormone effects, we identified relationships between Time-1 testosterone and problem behavior one year or more later. The relationship between testosterone and problem behavior was not present for subsequent measures of testosterone, either in cross-section or with time-lagged models. Therefore we cannot interpret the results as showing testosterone effects on problem behavior. Rather it appears that testosterone level in early adolescence is a marker for a more general growth trajectory of early development.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Social Biology


Drigotas, Stephen M.
Udry, J. Richard