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Waterborne Pathogens


Stewart, Jill R.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; & Lyons, M. Maille (2011). Waterborne Pathogens.. Harrison, Roy M. & Hester, Ronald E. (Eds.) (pp. 25-67). Cambridge, England: Royal Society of Chemistry.


A variety of microorganisms occur in the marine environment which are capable of infecting humans. This chapter, focused on waterborne pathogens, summarizes the types of pathogens that are a threat to human health, as well as the fecal indicator bacteria that are commonly used as surrogates for pathogens in regulatory and research applications. Limitations and alternatives to traditional fecal indicator bacteria are explored, highlighting challenges and policy implications for protecting public health. Methodological advances and challenges are also reviewed, with an emphasis on research designed to fill gaps and provide scientific support for management of marine resources, particularly bathing beaches. Accordingly, recent and previous epidemiology studies linking microbial measures of water quality to health outcomes are discussed in detail. As an alternative to the measurement of individual water samples, modeling of pathogens in marine waters is introduced. Overall, this chapter provides an overview of the pathogens, microbial measures and policy implications important for protecting humans from exposure to pathogens in marine waters.


Reference Type

Book Section

Year Published


Series Title

Issues in Environmental Science and Technology


Stewart, Jill R.
Fleming, Lora E.
Fleisher, Jay M.
Abdelzaher, Amir M.
Lyons, M. Maille