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de Batlle, Jordi; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Romaguera, Dora; Mendez, Michelle A.; Castano-Vinyals, Gemma; Martin, Vicente; Aragones, Nuria; Gomez-Acebo, Ines; Olmedo-Requena, Rocio; & Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan, et al. (2018). Meat Intake, Cooking Methods and Doneness and Risk of Colorectal Tumours in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study (MCC-Spain). European Journal of Nutrition, 57(2), 643-653.


PURPOSE: Although there is convincing evidence that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the potential role of meat cooking practices has not been established yet and could partly explain the current heterogeneity of results among studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between meat consumption and cooking practices and the risk of CRC in a population-based case-control study. METHODS: A total of 1671 CRC cases and 3095 controls recruited in Spain between September 2008 and December 2013 completing a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module were included in the analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression models adjusted for known confounders. RESULTS: Total meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR T3-T1 1.41; 95% CI 1.19-1.67; p trend < 0.001), and similar associations were found for white, red and processed/cured/organ meat. Rare-cooked meat preference was associated with low risk of CRC in red meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.66; 95% CI 0.51-0.85) and total meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.86) consumers, these associations being stronger in women than in men. Griddle-grilled/barbecued meat was associated with an increased CRC risk (total meat: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.13-1.87). Stewing (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51) and oven-baking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.00-1.40) were associated with increased CRC risk of white, but not red, meat. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports an association of white, red, processed/cured/organ and total meat intake with an increased risk of CRC. Moreover, our study showed that cooking practices can modulate such risk.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

European Journal of Nutrition


de Batlle, Jordi
Gracia-Lavedan, Esther
Romaguera, Dora
Mendez, Michelle A.
Castano-Vinyals, Gemma
Martin, Vicente
Aragones, Nuria
Gomez-Acebo, Ines
Olmedo-Requena, Rocio
Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan
Guevara, Marcela
Azpiri, Mikel
Llorens-Ivorra, Cristobal
Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo
Lorca, Jose Andres
Huerta, Jose Maria
Moreno, Victor
Boldo, Elena
Perez-Gomez, Beatriz
Castilla, Jesus
Fernandez-Villa, Tania
Barrio, Juan Pablo
Andreu, Montserrat
Castells, Antoni
Dierssen, Trinidad
Altzibar, Jone M.
Kogevinas, Manolis
Pollan, Marina
Amiano, Pilar