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Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality


Afeiche, Myriam C.; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L.; & Popkin, Barry M. (2017). Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality. Journal of Nutrition, 147(3), 404-412.


BACKGROUND: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.
OBJECTIVE: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.
RESULTS: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches or quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.
CONCLUSIONS: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and beans and reducing sodium and sugar-sweetened beverages could support compliance with these targets and improve overall diet quality.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Nutrition


Afeiche, Myriam C.
Taillie, Lindsey Smith
Hopkins, Sinead
Eldridge, Alison L.
Popkin, Barry M.