Skip to main content


Poulos, Christine; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Stewart, John F.; Clemens, John D.; Guh, Soyeon; Agtini, Magdarina; Anh, Dang Duc; Baiqing, Dong; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; & Sur, Dipika, et al. (2011). Cost of Illness Due to Typhoid Fever in Five Asian Countries. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 16(3), 314-323.


Objective: To generate community-based estimates of the public (paid by the government) and private (paid by households) costs of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and Hue, Vietnam.
Methods: To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90days after onset of illness. Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method.
Results: The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non-hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. Where costs were highest (Hechi, North Jakarta and Karachi), the bulk of the costs of hospitalized cases was borne by families, comprising up to 15% of annual household income.
Conclusion: Although these estimates may understate true costs due to the fact that higher quality treatment may have been provided earlier-than-usual, this multi-country community-based study contributes to evidence on the public and private costs of typhoid fever in developing countries. These cost estimates were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid vaccines and will help policymakers respond to World Health Organization's updated typhoid fever immunization recommendations.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Tropical Medicine and International Health


Poulos, Christine
Riewpaiboon, Arthorn
Stewart, John F.
Clemens, John D.
Guh, Soyeon
Agtini, Magdarina
Anh, Dang Duc
Baiqing, Dong
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
Sur, Dipika
Whittington, Dale
the DOMI Typhoid COI Study Group,