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Lorenz, Frederick O.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Bao, Wan-Ning; Wickrama, Kandauda A. S.; & Conger, Rand D. (2000). After Farming: Emotional Health Trajectories of Farm, Nonfarm, and Displaced Farm Couples. Rural Sociology, 65(1), 50-71.


This study links macro social change to emotional health through continuity and change in farming. Families were divided into four groups, depending on whether they were full‐time farmers, part‐time farmers, displaced farm families who had left farming during the 1980s, or nonfarm families. Using four waves of panel data, we estimated initial levels and subsequent changes in per capita family income, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms of wives and husbands. Between 1989 and 1992, full‐time farm families' incomes decreased dramatically, while displaced farm families started 1989 with the lowest average per capita family income but saw the largest average increases in subsequent years. Farm status and changes in income predicted changes in stressful life events; changes in stressful life events, in turn, predicted changes in wives' and husbands' reports of depressive symptoms.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Rural Sociology


Lorenz, Frederick O.
Elder, Glen H., Jr.
Bao, Wan-Ning
Wickrama, Kandauda A. S.
Conger, Rand D.